Single-cross maize hybrids with mid and better parent heterosis in growth and yield attributing traits

Hari Prasad Sharma1* , Jiban Shrestha2

DOI: 10.52547/azarinj.057




From October 6, 2015, to March 5, 2016, in research field of the National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal, an experiment was conducted to assess mid parent and better parent heterosis in growth and yield traits among single-cross maize hybrids. In a randomized complete block design with three replications, eleven maize hybrids were evaluated. The results showed that mid parent and better parent heterosis were considerably greater for yield traits viz cob length (67.1, 49.6%), cob diameter (113, 93.6%), number of kernel rows per cob (40, 27.6%), number of kernels per row (134.5, 98%), and test weight (92.2, 96.4%). The highest mid-parent heterosis for growth and yield attributing traits was found in RML-98/RL-105, followed by RML-5/RL-105, RML95/RL-105, and RML-4/NML-2. The hybrid RML-98/RL-105 had the highest better parent heterosis for growth and yield attributing traits, followed by RML-5/RL-105, RML-95/RL-105, and RML-4/NML-2. These findings suggested that hybrids like RML98/RL-105, RML-5/RL-105, RML-95/RL-105, and RML-4/NML-2 are promising hybrids that the farmers should grow these hybrids in order to increase maize production.


Heterosis, mid and better parents, single cross maize hybrids



Abdel-Moneam M.A. Attia A.N. El-Emery M.I. Fayed E.A. (2009) Combining ability and heterosis for some agronomic traits in crosses of maize. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science, 12(5): 433-438.

Adhikari J. (2014) Seed sovereignty:  Analyzing the debate on hybrid seeds and GMOs  and bringing  about  sustainability  in  agricultural  development.  Journal of Forest and Livelihood, 12: 33-46.

Alam A.K.M.M. Ahmed S. Begum M. Sultan M.K. (2008) Heterosis and combining ability for yield and its contributing characters in maize. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, 33(3): 375-379.

Amaregouda H.M. (2007) Combining ability analysis of S2 lines derived from yellow pool population in Rabi maize. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad.102p.

Amiruzzaman M. Islam M.A. Hassan L. Rohman M.M. (2010) Combining ability and heterosis for yield and Component characters in maize. Academic Journal of Plant Science, 3(2): 79-84.

Britannica (2021) Food crops.

Britannica (2021) Heterosis.

Carangal V.R. Ali S.M. Koble A.F. Rinke E.H. (1971) Comparison of S1 with testcross evaluation for recurrent selection in maize. Crop Science, 11: 658-661.

CDD (2013) Crop Development Directorate. Impact of maize mission program. Maize Mission Program.pdf

Devi B. Barua N.S. Barua P.K. Talukar P. (2007) Analysis of mid parent heterosis in a variety diallel in rainfed maize. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 67(2): 67-70.

FAO (2010) Statistical databases and data-sets of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Farnham D.E. Benson G.O. Pearce R.B. (2003) Corn perspective and culture. Chapter 1. In: PJ White, LA Johnson, eds. Corn: chemistry and technology, Edition 2nd. American Association of Cerial Chemicals, Inc. St. Paul, Minesota, USA. pp 1- 33.

Frascaroli E. Cane M.A. Landi P. Pea G. Gianfranceschi L. Villa M. Morgante M. Pe M.E. (2007) Classical genetic and quantitative trait loci analyses of heterosis in a maize hybrid between two elite inbred lines. Genetics, 176(1): 625-644.

Gadad S.K. (2003) Genetic analysis for quantitative traits, starch and oil in single cross hybrids of maize (Zea mays L.). M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India.

Gurung D.B. Upadhyay S.R. Pandey B.R. Pokhrel B.B.  Kshetri J.B. (2011) Hybrid maize seed production: A new initiative for reliable and sustainable hybrid maize seed supply. Nepal Agriculture Development Journal, 8: 1-8.

Hallauer A.R. Miranda J.B. (1988) Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding. 2nd ed. Iowa State University Press, Iowa, Ames. USA.

Hayes H.K. Immer F.R. Smith D.C. (1955) Methods of Plant Breeding. Mc. Grow Hill Book. Co., Inc., New York.

Mekbib F. Bjornstad A. Sperling L. Synnevag G. (2009) Factors shaping on-farm genetic resources of sorghum. Moench in the Centre of diversity, Ethiopia. International Journal of  Biodiversity and Conservation, 1(2): 045-059.

Mir S. D. Ahmad M.  Parray G.A., Zaffar G. Dar S.H. (2015) Heterosis studies in single crosses of inbred lines in maize (Zea mays L.). Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, 6(4): 1073-1077.

MoAD (2013) Statistical Information on Nepalese Agriculture. Government of Nepal, Ministry of Agriculture Development Agri-business Promotion and Statistics Division. Singha Durbar, Kathmandu, Nepal.

MoAD (2020) Statistical Information on Nepalese Agriculture. Government of Nepal, Ministry of Agriculture Development Agri-business Promotion and Statistics Division. Singha Durbar, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Paliwal R.L. (2000) Introduction to maize and its importance. Chapter 1. In: Tropical Maize: Improvement and Production. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome. pp 1-3.

Paudyal K.R. Ransom J.K. (2001) Resource use efficiency and effective incentives of Nepalese maize farmers. In: N. P. Rajbhandari, J. K. Ransom, K. Adhikari and A. E. F. Palmer (eds.) Sustainable Maize Production System for Nepal. Proceedings of a maize Symposium, December 3-5, 2001, Kathmandu, Nepal. pp. 239-245.

Pokhrel T. (2013) Impact  of  Maize  varieties  Disseminated  in  Chitwan,  Nepal.  Economic Journal of Nepal , 42(6): 45-53.

Russel F.  Eisensmith S.P. (1983)  MSTAT-C.  Crop and Soil Sci.  Dept.  Michigan  State Univ. USA.

Saleh G.B. Abdullah D. Anuar A.R. (2002) Performance of heterosis and heritability in selected, tropical maize single, double and three way cross hybrids. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 138: 21-28.

Sapkota D. Pokhrel S. (2013) Community based maize seed production in the hills and mountains of Nepal: A review. Agronomy Journal of Nepal, 1:107–112.

Sedhom Y.S. Ali  M.M.A.  Awaad  H.A. Rabie H.A. (2016) Heterosis and factor analysis for some important traits in new maize hybrids. Zagazig Journal of Agricultural Research, 43(3): 711-728.

Shrestha J. Koirala K.B. Katuwal R. Dhami N. Pokhrel B. Ghimire B. Prasai H.K. Paudel A. Pokhrel K. KC G. (2015) Performance evaluation of quality protein maize genotypes across various maize production agro ecologies of Nepal. Journal of Maize Research and Development, 1(1): 21-27.

Sleper D.A. Poehlman J.M. (2006) Breeding of field crops (No. Ed.5). Blackwell publishing, ISBN 1-56022-278-6, pp. 424.

Sofi P.A. Rather  A.G.  Dar Z.A. (2007) Association of heterotic expression for grain yield and component traits in maize (Zea mays L.). International Journal of Agriculture research, 2(5): 500-503.

Tollenaar M. Lee E.A. (2002) Yield potential, yield stability and stress tolerance in maize. Field Crops Research, 75 (2-3): 161-169.

Twumasi Afriyie S. Yihun K. Napir G. (2003) Exploitation of combining ability and heterotic responses in maize germplasm to develop cultivars for the Eastern African Highlands. Book of abstracts: Arnel R. Hallauer international symposium on plant breeding. In Text Book of abstracts: Arnel R. Hallauer international symposium on plant breeding. A Mexico, DF (Mexico)BCIMMYT C2003 (No. 631.53 BOO. CIMMYT.).

Venugopal M. Ansani N.A. Murthy G.K. (2002) Heterosis and its component characters in maize (Zea mays L.). Crop Research, 3:72-74.

Wali M.C. Kachapur R.M. Chandrashekhar C.P. Kulkarni V.R. Devaranavadagi S.B.(2010)Gene action and combining ability studies in single cross hybrids of maize (Zea mays L.). Karnataka, Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 23(4): 557-562.