Mohammad Mobarak Hossain1* , Mahfuza Begum1 , Md. Moshiur Rahman 1
A three-year (2012 – 2015) longer wet rice-wheat-jute crop rotation experiment was sampled from the Rajbari district of Bangladesh. The objective was to study the effects of strip tillage (ST), bed planting (BP), and zero tillage (ZT) relative to conventional tillage (CT) with increased residues (20 vs. 50%) of previous crops on the composition of soil weed seed pool. The weed abundance at 0-15 cm soil profile was quantified following “seedling germination method” at the green-house of Bangladesh Agricultural University during January – December 2016. The year-round count of germinated weeds revealed the fewest number of species, and the lowest density of broadleaf, grass, and sedge weeds were found in ST, followed by CT, BP, and ZT with 50% crop residues. The diversity of weed flora having some specific weeds was the least at ST but the ZT was the most diversified followed by BP and CT. The ST plus 50% residue decreased the weed composition. Still, they increased the relative proliferation of perennial weeds compared to CT. Weed composition in ST was even smaller than BP and ZT. The ST, BP, and ZT enriched the abundance of perennial weeds: Alternanthera sessilis, Leersia hexandra, Dentella repens, Jussia deccurence, Solanum torvum, Hedyotis corymbosa. On the other hand, annual weeds: Euphorbia parviflora, Cyperus iria, Monochoria hastata, Digitaria sanguinalis, Lindernia antipoda, L. hyssopifolia and Fimbristylis miliacea were dominated the weed seedbank at 0-15 cm soil profile after three years of cropping in Bangladesh.
Annual weeds, crop residues, reduced tillage, Weed diversity, zero tillage
Aweto A.O. (2013) Shifting cultivation and secondary succession in the tropics. CABI, Wallingford, Oxford shire, UK.
Barroso J. Navarrete L. Sánchez Del Arco M.J. Fernandez-Quintanilla C. Lutman P.J.W. Perry N.H. Hull R.I. (2006) Dispersal of Avena fatua and Avena sterilis patches by natural dissemination, soil tillage and combine harvesters. Weed Research, 46(2): 118–128.
Begum M. Juraimi A.S. Rastan S.O.B.S. Amartalingam R. Man AB (2006) Seedbank and seedling emergence characteristics of weeds in rice field soils of the muda granary area in north-west peninsular Malaysia. Biotropia, 13(1): 11–21.
Conn J.S. (2006) Weed seed bank affected by tillage intensity for barley in Alaska. Soil and Tillage Research, 90: 156–161.
Cordeau S. Baudron A. Adeux G. (2020) Is tillage a suitable option for weed management in conservation agriculture? Agronomy, 10(11): 1-14.
Curran W.S. (2016) Persistence of herbicides in soil. Crops & Soils, 49(5), 16–21.
Dahlin A.S. Rusinamhodzi L. (2019) Yield and labor relations of sustainable intensification options for smallholder farmers in sub‐Saharan Africa. A meta‐analysis. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 39(3): 1–18.
Demjanová E. Macák M. Dalovic I. Majernik F. Tyr S. Smatana S. (2009) Effects of tillage systems and crop rotation on weed density, weed species composition and weed biomass in maize. Agronomy Research, 7: 785–792.
Feledyn-Szewczyk B. Smagacz J. Kwiatkowski C.A. Harasim E. Woźniak A. (2020) Weed flora and soil seed bank composition as affected by tillage system in three-year crop rotation. Agriculture, 10(5): 1-20.
Gauvrit C. Chauvel B. (2010) Sensitivity of Ambrosia artemisiifolia to glufosinate and glyphosate at various developmental stages. Weed Research, 50(5): 503–510.
Gresta F. Cristaudo A. Onofri A. Restuccia A. Avola G. (2010) Germination response of four pasture species to temperature, light, and post-harvest period. Plant Biosystems, 144(4): 849–856.
Gruber S. Claupein W. (2009) Effect of tillage intensity on weed infestation in organic farming. Soil and Tillage Research, 105: 104–111.
Habich N. (2001) Ecological site inventory query (Inventory Data System), U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Denver, Colorado, USA.
Kleemann S.G.L. Gill G.S. (2013) Seed dormancy and seedling emergence in ripgut brome (Bromus diandrus) populations in southern Australia. Weed Science, 61(2): 222–229.
Krawczyk R. Kubsik K. Mrówczy´nski M. Kaczmarek S. (2008) Effect of soil variation and soil tillage systems on soil weed seedbank. Progress in Plant Protection, 48: 276–280. (In Polish)
Lemessa F. Wakjira M. (2014) Mechanisms of ecological weed management by cover cropping: A review. Journal of Biological Sciences, 14(7): 452–459.
Lim C.A. Awan T.H. Sta Cruz P.C. Chauhan BS (2015) Influence of environmental factors, cultural practices, and herbicide application on seed germination and emergence ecology of Ischaemum rugosum Salisb. PloS one, 10(9): e0137256.
Mashavakure N. Mashingaidze A.B. Musundire R. Gandiwa E. Svotwa E. (2020) Germinable weed seed-bank response to plant residue application and hand weeding under two contrasting tillage systems in a granite-derived clay loam soil in Zimbabwe. South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 37(2): 227–235.
Mirsky S.B. Ryan M.R. Teasdale J.R. Curran W.S. Reberg-Horton C.S. Spargo J.T. Wells M.S. Keene C.L. Moyer, J. W. (2013). Overcoming weed management challenges in cover crop–based organic rotational no-till soybean production in the Eastern United States. Weed Technology, 27(1): 193–203.
Nandan R. Singh V. Kumar V. Singh S.S. Hazra K.K. Nath C.P. Malik, R.K. Poonia S.P. (2020) Viable weed seed density and diversity in soil and crop productivity under conservation agriculture practices in rice-based cropping systems. Crop Protection, 136, 105210.
Nichols V. Verhulst N. Cox R. Govaerts B. (2015) Weed dynamics and conservation agriculture principles: A review. Field Crops Research, 183: 56–68.
Nkoa R. Owen M.D.K. Swanton C.J. (2015) Weed abundance, distribution, diversity, and community analyses. Weed Science, 63(1): 64–90.
Opeña J.L. Chauhan B.S. Baltazar A.M. (2014) Seed germination ecology of Echinochloa glabrescens and its implication for management in rice (Oryza sativa L.). PLoS ONE, 9(3): e92261.
Owen M.J. Goggin D.E. Powles SB (2015) Intensive cropping systems select for greater seed dormancy and increased herbicide resistance levels in Lolium rigidum (annual ryegrass). Pest Management Science, 71(7): 966–971.
Oziegbe M. Faluyi J.O. Oluwaranti A. (2010) Effect of seed age and soil texture on germination of some Ludwigia species (Onagraceae) in Nigeria. Acta Botanica Croatica, 69(2): 249-257.
Peigné J. Ball B.C. Roger-Estrade J. David, C. (2007) Is conservation tillage suitable for organic farming? A review. Soil Use and Management, 23: 129–144.
Piskier T. Sekutowski T.R. (2013) Effect of simplified tillage on the number and distribution of weed seeds in soil. Journal of Research and Applications in Agricultural Engineering, 58: 109–117.
Pittelkow C.M. Liang X. Linquist B.A. Van Groenigen L.J. Lee J. Lundy M.E. Van Gestel N. Six J. Venterea R.T. van Kessel C. (2015) Productivity limits and potentials of the principles of conservation agriculture. Nature, 517(7534): 365–368.
Restuccia A. Scavo A. Lombardo S. Pandino G. Fontanazza S. Anastasi U. Abbate C. Mauromicale G. (2020) Long-term effect of cover crops on species abundance and diversity of weed flora. Plants, 9 (11): 1–16.
Santín-Montanyá M.I. Martín-Lammerding D. Walter I. Zambrana E. Tenorio J.L. (2013) Effects of tillage, crop systems and fertilization on weed abundance and diversity in 4-year dry land winter wheat. European Journal of Agronomy, 48: 43–49.
Shannon C.E. (1948) A mathematical theory of communications. The Bell System Technical Journal. 27: 379–423.
Simpson E.H. (1949) Measurement of diversity. Nature, 168: 668.
Singh M. Bhullar M.S. Chauhan B.S. (2015) Influence of tillage cover cropping, and herbicides on weeds and productivity of dry direct-seeded rice. Soil and Tillage Research, 147: 39–49.
Singh R. Pramanick B. Singh A. Kumar S. Kumar A. Singh G. (2017) Bio-efficacy of fenoxaprop-p-ethyl for grassy weed control in onion and its residual effect on succeeding maize crop. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 49(1): 63–66.
Tanveer A. Nadeem M.A. Ali A. Tahir M. Zamir M.S.I. (2009) Germination behaviour of seeds from herbicide treated plants of Chenopodium album L. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 81(4): 873–879.
Travlos I.S. Cheimona N. Roussis I. Bilalis D.J. (2018) Weed-species abundance and diversity indices in relation to tillage systems and fertilization. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 6(11): 1-10.
Vakali C. Zaller J.G. Köpke U. (2011) Reduced tillage effects on soil properties and growth of cereals and associated weeds under organic farming. Soil and Tillage Research, 111: 133–141.
White S.S. Renner K.A. Menalled F.D. Landis D.A. (2007) Feeding preferences of weed seed predators and effect on weed emergence. Weed Science, 55(6): 606–612.
Woźniak A. (2018) Effect of tillage system on the structure of weed infestation of winter wheat. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 16(4): 1-7.