Morphological and physical characterization of Ngurore Vertisols for improved crop productivity in Adamawa State, Nigeria
Simon Nyandansobi John2, Alhassan Ibraheem1*, Timon Freedom3
A soil survey was carried out on the vertisols of Ngurore, Yola South Local Government Area (LGA) of Adamawa State, Nigeria to evaluate the significance of its morphological and physical properties to improve agricultural productivity. Three soil mapping units were identified in the study area designated as NVM (Ngurore Vertisols Mapping unit) 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The mapping units based on their characteristics were defined as Eutric Chromusterts, Eutric Plinthusterts and Typic Chromusterts (USDA). The Ngurore vertisols generally exhibits some characteristics unique from other vertisols elsewhere; the particle size distribution appeared to be more of sand than the usual clay and its irregular trends of distribution (average mean sand range: 44.20 – 48.20%). The soils have a moderate bulk density (1.33 – 1.35gcm-3) and good total porosity (53.60 – 55.50%) and poor soil structure. It is therefore recommended that tillage operations should be properly timed, when the soil moisture is moderate for easy land preparation using farm implements and machineries. Incorporation of organic manures will improve soil structure and other vital soil processes e.g. nutrient availability and its uptake, soil aeration, optimum moisture retention etc. Sprinkler method of irrigation discharging water at slower rates is recommended over flood irrigation during the dry season for a sustainable utilization all year round.
Keywords: Soil morphology, physical properties, vertisols, Adamawa state, Nigeria