Effects of Ultrasound, Tryptophan and Proline on embryogenesis and regeneration of grape (Vitis vinifera L.)
Yousef Farokhzad1*, Sajjad Pourmand2, Ayatollah Rezaei3, Yavar Sharafi3
Genetic improvement of Grape is limited by traditional methods. An effective regeneration system for tissues culture of transgenic adult plants could facilitate genetic modification of them. So it is necessary to develop and improve embryogenesis and regeneration systems in plants. Accordingly the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ultrasound (0 (as control), 60, 120 and 240 second), tryptophan (0 (as control), 50,100, 200 µM) and proline content (0 (as control), 50, 100 and 200 µM) on grape stem internodes explants in Kodori cultivar. This project was performed in factorial experiment (two factors) in the basis of completely randomized design with three replications at tissue culture laboratory of Shahed University of Tehran. Results showed that both ultrasound and two explained amino acids had significant effects on studied characteristics such as callus frequency, callus length and width, fresh weight, embryo numbers in each callus and their germination percentage. Generally, using 100 µM tryptophan and proline coincide with 120 second ultrasound had highest positive effects on the most studied characteristics.
Keywords: Callus, Embryogenesis percentage, Proline, Tryptophan